Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Leaf test for starch

Objective: The purpose of this lab is to find out the starch in the leaf

Step 1: boil the 100 mL of water
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step 2: boil leaf for 2 minutes.
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step3: Put leaf in ethanol, wait until the ethanol turn green.
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Step 4: Drop iodine
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Friday, February 3, 2017

Titration of HCL acid/ NaOH


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pipette bulb
buret funnel
Phenolphthalein indicator

Step1: set up the equipment
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Step 2: Clean the buret  and then add 50 mL of bases.
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Step 3: Pour 10 mL of hydrochloric acid into beaker and place under the buret.
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Step 4: Drop a little of bases into a beaker with acids. If it turn to purple, swirl the beaker. Repeat until the acid cannot turn back to normal color.
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Wednesday, January 18, 2017


Genetically Modified Organisms plant can cause drawbacks to the society due to the unexpected harm in the future. For instance, in long term consequence, GMOs plants can cause disorder such as cancer due to the genetically modification and allergic reactions in some consumers as well. There's no exact research about long term effect of GMOs plants, hence, we can't make sure that what will happen after people consumed the products.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Plant Graft

Objective: To observe how long it take for join the plants we graft.

Hypothesis: We think it will take 5 days to connect them together.


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2 sample plants of same specie

Step 1: Cut the node of each of same specie of plant in v shape.
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Step 2: Connect the tip with the end of the plant, using the clay.
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Step 3: Tie the thread to lock clay with two node.
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1.  why do we use clay?
Ans. We use clay to wrapped grafted plant to make it hold together until its stem connected.

2.  why do we cut at the node?  what is the node?
Ans. Node of a plant is the part of plants that causes leaf growth.

3.  why do we use string to tie it?

Sunday, December 11, 2016

Thermometer ice-cream LAB


Yogurt   Milk   Toppings   Salt   Ice   Tray   Thermometer   Flask    Test Tube Rack    Plates   Sealing Bags


STEP 1: Get the ice and put into tray

STEP 2: Pour milk into sealing bag and flask(put the thermometer in flask to measure the temperature)

STEP 3:Add salt into the ice to decrease the temperature.

STEP 4: Place milk with sealing bag and flask with thermometer on left and right side of the tray with ice, shake test tube rack up/down  and measure temperature in every 30 seconds.

STEP 5: Keep shaking until the milk become liquid.

STEP 6: Decorate ice cream as you want


Leaf Structure and Function

Cover slip


1. You find a plant that has leaves with parallel venation. Considering what you know, what type of root system would you expect this plant to have? Also, how many petals would you expect to find on the flowers?
ANS. The parallel venation is mono-cot leave, Mono-cot leaves have long, slender blades and lack a petiole.

2. What structure do you look for at the base of the petiole to help determine if a leaf is simple or compound?
ANS. To determine which plant is simple or compound, we can look at axillary bud at the stems' nod at the base of the petiole of each leaf.

3. What two vascular tissue are located within the vein? what does each transport?
ANS. Plant has two vascular bundles which are xylem; transport water and nutrients from roots to leaves, and phloem; transport proteins,  and sugar from the stems to growing tissues and storage tissue.

4. What is the primary function of the leaf?
ANS. Leaves are broad and flat to provide a large surface area for absorption of sunlight and gas exchange. So the primary function of leaf is photosynthetic organs of plants.


Saturday, November 26, 2016

Change of the state

100 mL of water
10 g of salt
Gauze met
Bunsen burner


1. In the beaker, mix several ice cubes with about 100 mL of water.

2. Place the thermometer in the ice/water mixture for 3 minutes.

3. Now heat the ice/water mixture, keeping the Bunsen burner air hole the same throughout the experiment.

4. Continue to record the temperature at 1 minute intervals until the water boil.

5. Measure the temperature for 3 more minute after boiling starts. Stop boiling if the water level falls below 50 mL.

For the second test, mix the 100 mL of water with 10 grams of salt and follow the same step.

1. Why did your graph not quite start at 0 degree Celsius?
            Ans. because the water is in the liquid state which means the temperature cannot go down to 0 degree Celsius like solid state of water.

2. Were there any level sections in your graph? why did they occur?
            Ans. The temperature of the ice/water mixed decrease down from the starting point to 3 minutes.  After we boiling the water, the temperature increasing rapidly and nearly reach 100  degree Celsius.